###### NIST Recommendations

- Modes of operation for block ciphers approved by NIST (source, updated February 12, 2018)
- Encryption: 6
- Authentication: 1
- Encryption with Authentication: 5
- Format-Preserving Encryption: 2

- Minimum key sizes approved by NIST (source, published January 2016)
- AES: 128 bits
- Diffie-Hellman: 2048 bits (617 digits)
- RSA: 2048 bits (617 digits)
- Digital Signature Algorithm: 2048 bits (617 digits) for public key, 224 bits (68 digits) for private key
- Elliptic Curve Cryptography: 224 bits (68 digits)

###### Record-Breaking Computations

- Record for finding a discrete logarithm modulo a prime (source, announced June 16, 2016):

*p *= + 62762 =1219344858334286932696341909195796109526657386154251328029273656175766870980306505584577389125860826715201547225794072935883258868036433287217994721542199148182841505800433148410869683590659346847659519108393837414567892730579162319 (768 bits, 232 digits)

- Record for finding a discrete logarithm in a finite field (source, announced January 31, 2014): Finite field has 2
^{9232}elements; size of the field is 9232 bits (2779 digits). - Record for factoring a product of two large primes of general form (source, published January 6, 2010):

*n*=1230186684530117755130494958384962720772853569595334792197322452151726400507263657518745202199786469389956474942774063845925192557326303453731548268507917026122142913461670429214311602221240479274737794080665351419597459856902143413 (768 bits, 232 digits)

- Record for finding a discrete logarithm on an elliptic curve of general form modulo
*p*(source, published September 9, 2009):

*p *= (2^{128} − 3)/(11 × 6949) = 4451685225093714772084598273548427 (112 bits, 34 digits)

- Record for finding a discrete logarithm on a “pairing-friendly” elliptic curve modulo
*p*(source, published

*p *= 1957518425389075254535992784167879 (114 bits, 35 digits)

- Record for finding the shortest vector in a randomly generated lattice (source, announced August 30, 2018): A point in a lattice in 153 dimensions which is distance 3192 from the origin.

###### Quantum Computing Records

- Largest number reported factored using Shor’s Algorithm for fast quantum computing: 21 (source, published October 21, 2012)
- Largest number reported factored using quantum computation at any speed: 200099 (source, published February 21, 2017)

###### Post-Quantum Cryptography

- Submissions to the NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization process (source, presented April 11, 2018)
- Submissions received by NIST: 82
- Submissions meeting minimum specified requirements: 69
- Submissions still in contention as of the First PQC Standardization Conference: 64
- Submitters involved: 278, from “25 Countries, 16 States, 6 Continents”

- Submissions surviving to Round 2 of the NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization process (source, announced January 20, 2019)
- Public-key encryption and key-establishment algorithm: 17
- Digital signature algorithms: 9
- 2nd NIST PQC Standardization Workshop: August 22-24, 2019

- Select algorithms or start a 3rd Round: 2020/2021
- Draft standards available: 2022-2024

###### Quantum Cryptography Records

- Fastest quantum key agreement systems:
- Longest quantum key agreement systems: